Introduction to PID Algorithms

Introduction:

Often times in robotics, you want to have your robot reach a desired sensor point, whether it is driving to a certain distance, or keeping an arm at a certain height. Let's assume that you want your robot to autonomously drive N meters. To accomplish this, one may run motors for a specific time in order to reach that desired place. However, there is too much variation on things like how much battery the robot has at the time, or the state of the motors, or the surface of contact with the drive, momentum and inertia, and more. Usually, if you have tried this method, you might have noticed that the robot goes over the desired distance (called "overshooting"). So, now let's assume you have attached an encoder to the chassis to measure the amount of degrees that have occurred since the beginning of movement. In the code, the robot moves forward until the encoder reads the goal sensor value. This method is better than not using any sensor, yet still causes overshooting because of the aforementioned physical limitations. The solution? A feedback loop that constantly changes the power of the drive motors.

P, I and D

There are 3 components to a PID controller.